Antihistamines can be compared with analgesics and antiviral drugs in terms of the degree of demand for them, and Loratadine, which helps to fight any allergies, from urticaria to severe edema, is the most prescribed medicine of this type. How does it affect the body and can it be used in pregnant and small children?
For more than 20 years, this antihistamine( more precisely, the substance that is produced under several trade names) is considered the most popular because it is prescribed more often by doctors. The government of the Russian Federation, he will make one of the most important medicines, because for a long time blocks histamine receptors, which eliminates the symptoms of allergies. According to patient reviews, this is the most effective antihistamine drug, and among all drugs of this type in America and the UK, only it can be purchased without a prescription.
Composition and Release Form
Allergy preparation for allergy is produced by several pharmaceutical companies and presented in the pharmacies by means of several allergic companies, and the release form of the allergy has been used in several pharmaceutical companies in the form of an allergy for several allergy companies, they are in a number of the pharmaceutical companies for allergies to make allergies Allergy It is an example of
flavor "Apricot 059»
Active eponymous agent refersto the group of histamine receptor blockers( H1) of the 2nd or new generation, which have a reduced sedative effect, if we compare them with the presentatives first generation. The principle of operation is simple: due to the suppression of the release of histamine, the course of the allergic reaction is alleviated, and if taken prematurely, the drug is prevented. Preparations based on loratadine:
- reduce capillary permeability;
- prevent the formation( or increase) of edema;
- relieve smooth muscle spasms.
Suppressing the action of histamine reduces itching, has a anti-exudative effect. The effect of Loratadine use, if the patient completely follows the instructions, will be observed after half an hour, but will become maximum only after 8 hours. The duration of the drug's effect is 24 hours, while there is no effect on the nervous system.
Indications for use
The list of situations in which this drug can be used is the same for all dosage forms, excluding the fact that syrup, unlike tablets, can be used in toddlers, so it is popular in pediatric practice. Drugs based on loratadine, according to the instructions, are prescribed for:
- allergic rhinitis( both seasonal and year-round);
- allergic conjunctivitis;
- eczema in chronic form;
- reactions to insect bites;
- pseudo-allergic reactions to products that cause histamine release.
How to take Loratadine for adults
Absorption of the active substance occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, with food intake tablets and syrup should be spread so that the stomach is empty at the time of their administration, otherwise the effect will have to wait longer( by an hour).Reception is one-time for patients of all ages, and if there are problems with the liver or kidneys, the medicine is drunk every other day, as the elimination period increases. The duration of treatment must be determined by the doctor - this depends on the individual response and the reason for the start of the therapeutic course.
The initial dosage for such a dosage form is what doctors call 5 mg, which is half a tablet. It is especially relevant for patients with liver disease and having hypersensitivity. With good response, the dose to persons over the age of 12 years is increased to 10 mg. A pill is drunk before meals or 1–1.5 hours after it, washed down with a small amount of warm water. Chew is not necessary. Separate with a knife if necessary. In the absence of positive dynamics after 3 days the drug is canceled.
According to official instructions and medical statistics, in the form of a syrup, this medicine is used mainly in children, or those who are lactose intolerant. It is prescribed in the same dosages as the tablets - this is 10 mg of the active substance( which is 10 ml or 2 tsp. Of syrup) per reception for patients older than 12 years old and weighing more than 30 kg. For liver failure, it is recommended to drink 5 ml of syrup daily or 10 ml every other day. Reception is carried out before a meal, the medicine needs to be taken with water.
Loratadine for children
In infants, this medicine is not used in any form until they reach the age of 2 years, although some manufacturers( for Loratadine "Teva", "Stoma", etc.) increase the border to 3 years. The dosage is determined by the weight of the small patient - if it is less than 30 kg, it is impossible to give more than 5 mg at a time( the amount of active substance).For syrup it is 5 ml, for pills - 1/2 pcs, but with such weight it is necessary to carry out the treatment under the supervision of a pediatrician. The standard dosage of a single dose for children weighing more than 30 kg and aged from 2 to 12 years:
- syrup - 1-2 tsp, i.e.5-10 mg;
- tablets - 5 mg( half pill), but with good tolerability and strongly pronounced allergy symptoms, you can take 10 mg( whole pill).
The speed of action( gaining the maximum concentration of the active substance) is reduced in the elderly and those whose liver function is impaired, especially if it is an alcohol effect. However, dosage adjustment in these situations is not required. It is important to remember a few points:
- Syrup should be used with caution in diabetics due to the presence of refined sugar in the composition.
- The mental concentration from taking Loratadine does not worsen, but drowsiness may appear in some patients and the emergence of a dose-dependent sedation is not excluded.
- Due to the presence of lactose tablets, they can be dangerous for people with intolerance to this substance, lactase deficiency and problems with the absorption of lactose or galactose.
- Before conducting allergic tests requires the abolition of any antihistamines for a week.
Loratadine during lactation
Studies have not been conducted to answer the question about the use of this drug in pregnant and lactating women. Experimental tests on animals did not show any negative effects on the fetus. However, the metabolites of the active substance are excreted in breast milk, which does not exclude their transfer to the child and the possible risk to its health. If it is necessary to treat with Loratadine during lactation, feeding is stopped for 48 hours.
While taking Loratadine, the concentration of erythromycin decreases by 15%, and ketoconazole increases the level of the active metabolite H1-blocker histamine in the blood plasma. A similar pattern is observed when combined with protease inhibitors. Separately, it is necessary to take into account the risk of increasing the dose-dependent sedation during the reception:
- tricyclic antidepressants;
- other H1-histamine blockers.
Loratadine and Alcohol
According to official instructions, the depressant effect of alcohol on the nervous system does not provoke Loratadine. However, their combination is undesirable, since the effect of the therapy will be reduced, and the toxic effect on the liver cells will increase. Studies have shown that the simultaneous use of alcohol and histamine H1-blockers leads to a slower metabolism of ethanol.
Side Effects of
For all dosage forms of Loratadine, the risk of adverse reactions increases if you exceed the recommended dose by 4 times or more. This mainly concerns tachycardias and drowsiness, but in addition to them, the list of side effects includes:
- dry mouth;
- skin rash;
- irritability( in children).
Antihistamines are generally well tolerated, especially those belonging to the new generation of H1-blockers. For this reason, the only hard contraindications to the use of Loratadine doctors( and official instructions) are called intolerance to the active substance or auxiliary components, the child's age( up to 2 or 3 years - depends on the manufacturer).
Conditions of sale and storage of
. As with most drugs for the treatment of allergies of a different nature, the purchase of loratadine in a pharmacy is possible without a prescription from the doctor. Tablets can be stored for 3 years( for some manufacturers - 2 years), and syrup - 2 years. The air temperature should not exceed 25 degrees, the bottle / blister should be protected from sunlight.
More than a dozen drugs are produced on the active substance of the same name: the closest analogs to generics are Loratadine Teva, Stom-Shtada, Verte and others.they may not coincide with the designated agent by concentration, release form or composition. The most well-known substitutes for this type of loratadine:
- Lotharen - is presented in the form of suppositories of 5 and 10 mg, therefore, it is better tolerated by persons with increased gastrointestinal sensitivity.
- Claritin - is produced similarly in the form of syrup and tablets( 10 mg), has a high cost.
If you are looking for an analogue of Loratadine from the group of antihistamine drugs, but with a different active substance, the choice will be much greater. Depending on the sensitivity of the organism, it is possible to consider the rest of the new generation, or the classic antiallergic drugs. Most recommended:
- Diazolin( mebhydrolin, 1st generation H1-blocker) - gives a short-lasting effect and has a strong sedative effect.
- Cetirizine( or Tsetrin - the difference is only in the manufacturer) - is similar in power to Loratadine, belongs to the same generation, can be assigned even to an infant. Suprastin
- ( chloropyramine, 1st generation) - is not used during pregnancy and in babies, is undesirable for elderly patients, has a strong suppressive effect on the central nervous system.
How much this drug will cost depends on the form of release - the tablets are often cheaper, and the country of manufacture. Russian packages of Loratadine are inexpensive: they can be found for 10-50 p.- This is the price of 7-10 tablets from the companies Biosintez, Tatkhimpharmpreparaty, Farmakor. The Czech version will be more expensive - from 50 to 200 rubles, and the syrup - from 120 to 140 rubles. The picture of prices by manufacturers of tablets can be seen in the table:
- Teva( 10 pcs.)
-Stada( 10 pcs.)
-Verte( 10 pcs.)
-Arikhin( 10 pcs.)
- Hemofarm( 20 pcs.)
Galina, 32 years old
Allogy allergy pills Stoma or Teva always keep inptechke - a few years already save the whole family. There is no difference between these options, buying what is present at a particular moment in the sale. Allergy symptoms are removed within 24 hours, drowsiness, as from Suprastin, no. When I react to drugs, I take pills for 3 days, with seasonal allergies - 5 days.
Alena, 29 years old
I don’t really trust the reviews on medications - I need to select with a doctor, not from someone else’s opinion, but I changed myself with Loratadin: I was looking for an inexpensive antihistamine and found… for 20 rubles. The effect is impressive! She took it first with ARVI to remove the mucosal edema, then gave the child a reaction to pollen - the action of the pills is almost instant!
Ilona, 35 years old
I consider the mildest among all the tested antihistamine medications for children Loratadine for children: the syrup gave even to the baby( after consulting with the doctor) when the teeth got up - the dosage was 1/2 tsp. Older pills( 4 years old) were already prescribed in half, at the height of the seasonal response to pollen and after vaccination - they were well tolerated.